Explore
 Lists  Reviews  Images  Update feed
Categories
MoviesTV ShowsMusicBooksGamesDVDs/Blu-RayPeopleArt & DesignPlacesWeb TV & PodcastsToys & CollectiblesComic Book SeriesBeautyAnimals   View more categories »
Listal logo
6
vote
551 Views    Share:

Favorite Drama Films: 1986-1987

Movie list created by Agent Kermit D. Fonz Avatar

Sort by: Showing 1-50 of 80
Decade: Rating: List Type:
People who added this item 78 Average listal rating (62 ratings) 6.2 IMDB Rating 6.3
The Principal (1987)


Directed by: Christopher Cain
Produced by: Thomas D. Brodeck
Written by: Frank Deese
Cinematography: Arthur Albert
Edited by: Jack Hofstra
Music by: Jay Gruska and Strafe

Distributed by: Tri-Star Pictures
People who added this item 1 Average listal rating (0 ratings) 0 IMDB Rating 6.1
Toby McTeague (1986)


Directed by: Jean Claude Lord
Produced by: Nicholas Clermont, Pieter Kroonenburg, and David Patterson
Written by: Jamie Brown, Jeff Maguire, and Djordje Milicevic
Cinematography: Rene Verzier
Edited by: Yves Langlois
Music by: Claude Demers

Distributed by: CBC Television and International Spectralfilms
People who added this item 443 Average listal rating (283 ratings) 7 IMDB Rating 7
Near Dark (1988)


Directed by: Kathryn Bigelow
Produced by: Steven Charles Jaffe
Written by: Eric Red and Kathryn Bigelow
Cinematography: Adam Greenberg
Edited by: Howard E. Smith
Music by: Tangerine Dream

Distributed by: DeLaurentiis Entertainment Group
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 1402 Average listal rating (936 ratings) 7 IMDB Rating 7
Hellraiser (1987)


Directed by: Clive Barker
Produced by: Christopher Figg
Written by: Clive Barker
Based on the novel "The Hellbound Heart" by: Clive Barker
Cinematography: Robin Vidgeon
Edited by: Richard Marden and Tony Randel
Music by: Christopher Young

Distributed by: Entertainment Film Distributors and New World Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 835 Average listal rating (559 ratings) 7.2 IMDB Rating 7.3
Angel Heart (1987)


Directed by: Alan Parker
Produced by: Alan Parker and Elliot Kastner
Written by: Alan Parker
Based on the novel "Falling Angel" by: William Hjortsberg
Cinematography: Michael Seresin
Edited by: Gerry Hambling
Music by: Trevor Jones and Courtney Pine

Distributed by: Tri-Star Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 2633 Average listal rating (1713 ratings) 7.8 IMDB Rating 8.1
Stand by Me (1986)


Directed by: Rob Reiner
Produced by: Andrew Scheinman, Raynold Gideon, and Bruce A. Evans
Written by: Raynold Gideon and Bruce A. Evans
Based on the short story, "The Body" by: Stephen King
Cinematography: Thomas Del Ruth
Edited by: Robert Leighton
Music by: Jack Nitzsche

Distributed by: Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:


irected by: William Phelps
Produced by: William Finnegan, Gregory Hinton, and Tim McCanlies
Written by: Tim McCanlies, Randal Klesier, and William Phelps
Cinematography: Peter Smokler
Edited by: Robert Gordon
Music by: Richard Stone

Distributed by: Universal Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:


Directed by: Taylor Hackford
Produced by: Stephanie Bennett and Chuck Berry
Cinematography: Oliver Stapleton
Edited by: Lisa Day

Distributed by: Universal Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 2319 Average listal rating (1438 ratings) 7.8 IMDB Rating 7.8
Blue Velvet (1986)


Directed by: David Lynch
Produced by: Dino De Laurentiis, Richard A. Roth, and Fred Caruso
Written by: David Lynch
Cinematography: Frederick Elmes
Edited by: Duwayne Dunham
Music by::Angelo Badalamenti

Distributed by: De Laurentiis Entertainment Group and MGM/UA
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 128 Average listal rating (83 ratings) 6 IMDB Rating 6.2


Directed by: Edward Zwick
Produced by: Jason Brett, Stuart Oken, and Arnold Stiefel
Written by: Tim Kazurinsky, and Denise DeClue
Based on the play, "Sexual Perversity in Chicago", by: David Mamet
Cinematopgraphy: Andrew Dintenfass
Edited by: Harry Keramidas
Music by: Miles Goldman

Distributed by: Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 2091 Average listal rating (1432 ratings) 7.1 IMDB Rating 7.6
Lethal Weapon (1987)


Directed by: Richard Donner
Produced by: Jennie Lew Tugen, Joel Silver, and Richard Donner
Written by: Jeffrey Boam and Shane Black
Cinematography: Stephen Greenblatt
Edited by: Stuart Baird
Music by: Michael Kamen and Eric Clapton
Song and lyrics by: Michael Kamen

Distributed by: Warner Bros.
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 292 Average listal rating (179 ratings) 6.5 IMDB Rating 6.6


Directed by: Peter Weir
Produced by: Saul Zaentz and Jerome Hellman
Written by: Paul Schrader
Based on the novel by: Paul Theroux
Cinematography: John Seale
Edited by: Thom Noble
Music by: Maurice Jarre

Distributed by: Warner Bros.
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 640 Average listal rating (309 ratings) 7 IMDB Rating 7.3


Directed by: James Ivory
Produced by: Ismail Merchant and Paul Bradley
Written by: Ruth Prawer Jhabvala
Based on the novel by: E.B. Forester
Cinematography: Tony Pierce Roberts
Edited by: Humphrey Dixon
Music by: Richard Robbins

Distributed by: Cinecom Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 131 Average listal rating (67 ratings) 5.8 IMDB Rating 6.5


Directed by: Nick Castle
Produced by: Gary Adelson, Brian E. Frankish, and Richard Vane
Written by: Nick Castle
Cinematography: Adam Holender and Steven Poster
Edited by: Patrick Kennedy
Music by: Bruce Broughton

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 92 Average listal rating (60 ratings) 5.8 IMDB Rating 6
Legal Eagles (1986)


Directed by: Ivan Reitman
Produced by: Joe Medjuck, Michael C. Gross, Sheldon Kahn, and Ivan Reitman
Written by: Jack Epps, Jr., Jim Cash, and Ivan Reitman
Cinematography: Laszlo Kovacs
Edited by: Pembrook J. Henning, Sheldon Kahn, and William Gordean
Music by: Elmer Bernstein

Distributed by: Universal Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 69 Average listal rating (41 ratings) 6.5 IMDB Rating 6.4
52 Pick-Up (1986)


Directed by: John Frankenheimer
Produced by: Yoram Globus, Menahem Golan, and Henry T. Weinstein
Written by: Elmore Leonard and John Strolling
Based on the novel by: Elmore Leonard
Cinematography: Jost Vocano and Stephen Ramsey
Edited by: Robert F. Shugrue
Music by: Gary Chung

Distributed by: Cannon Films
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 59 Average listal rating (42 ratings) 6 IMDB Rating 5.7


Directed by: Thomas Michael Donnelly
Produced by: Christopher Meledandri, Daniel Melnick, and Thomas Rachmil
Written by: Thomas Michael Donnelly
Cinematography: Thomas Del Ruth
Edited by: Tom Rolf
Music by: Tony Banks
Music and lyrics by: Dean Pitchford and Giorgio Moroder

Distributed by: Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 99 Average listal rating (64 ratings) 6.4 IMDB Rating 6.5
The Big Easy (1987)


Directed by: Jim McBride
Produced by: Jack Baran, Mort Engelbert, and Stephen J. Friedman
Written by: Daniel Petrie, Jr., Jack Baran, and Jim McBride
Cinematography: Affonso Beato
Edited by: Mia Goldman
Music by: Brad Fiedel

Distributed by: Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 64 Average listal rating (35 ratings) 5.5 IMDB Rating 5.8


Directed by: Hal Ashby
Produced by: Mark Damon, John W. Hyde, and Stephen J. Roth
Written by: Oliver Stone, R. Lance Hill, Hal Ashby, and Robert Towne
Based on the novel by: Lawrence Block
Cinematography: Stephen H. Burum
Edited by: Robert Lawrence and Stewart H. Pappe
Music by: James Newton Howard

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 160 Average listal rating (106 ratings) 5.5 IMDB Rating 5.4


Directed by: Anthony Perkins
Produced by: Hilton A. Green
Written by: Charles Edward Pogue
Based on the characters by: Robert Bloch
Cinematography; Bruce Surtees
Edited by: David Blewitt
Music by: Carter Burwell

Distributed by: Universal Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 175 Average listal rating (86 ratings) 7.4 IMDB Rating 7.3


Directed by: John Boorman
Produced by: Edgar F. Gross, John Boorman, and Jake Eberts
Written by: John Boorman
Cinematography: Phillipe Rousselot
Edited by: Ian Crafford
Music by: Peter Martin

Distributed by: Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 1063 Average listal rating (720 ratings) 7.1 IMDB Rating 7.6


Directed by: John Hughes
Produced by: William H. Brown, Michael Chinich, John Hughes, and Neil A. Machlis
Written by: John Hughes
Cinematography: Donald Peterman
Edited by: Paul Hirsch
Music by: Ira Newborn

Distributed by: Paramount Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 259 Average listal rating (177 ratings) 7 IMDB Rating 7.5
Hoosiers (1987)


Directed by: David Anspaugh
Produced by: Graham Henderson, John Daly, Carter De Haven, Angelo Pizzo, and Derek Gibson
Written by: Angelo Pizzo
Cinematography: Fred Murphy
Edited by: C. Timothy O'Meara
Music by: Jerry Goldsmith

Distributed by: Hemdale Pictures and MGM/UA
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 289 Average listal rating (147 ratings) 6.5 IMDB Rating 6.5


irected by: Marek Kanievska
Produced by: Jon Avent, Marvin Worth, and Jordan Kerner
Written by: Harley Peyton
Based on the novel by: Bret Easton Ellis
Cinematography: Edward Lachman
Edited by: Peter E. Berger and Michael Tronick
Music by: Thomas Newman

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 759 Average listal rating (466 ratings) 6.8 IMDB Rating 7


Directed by: Martin Scorscese
Produced by: Barbara Da Fine and Irving Axelrad
Written by by: Richard Price
Based on the novel, "The Hustler", and charecters created by: Walter Tavis
Cinematography: Michael Ballhaus
Edited by: Thelma Schoonmacher
Music by: Robbie Robertson

Distributed by: Touchstone Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 197 Average listal rating (120 ratings) 6.9 IMDB Rating 6.9
Lucas (1986)


Directed by: David Setzler
Produced by: Kristi Zea and David Nicksay
Written by: David Setzler
Cinematography: Reynaldo Villalobos
Edited by: Priscilla Nedd Friendly
Music by: David Grusin

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 99 Average listal rating (62 ratings) 5.8 IMDB Rating 6.1


Directed by: Ridley Scott
Produced by: Thierry de Ganney, Ridley Scott, Mimi Polk Gitlin, and Harold Schneider
Written by: Howard Franklin, Danilo Bach, and David Seltzer
Cinematography: Steven Poster
Edited by: Claire Simpson
Music by: Michael Kamen

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 1253 Average listal rating (787 ratings) 5.7 IMDB Rating 6.1


Directed by: John G. Avildsen
Produced by: R.J. Louis and Jerry Weintraub
Written by: Robert Mark Kamen
Based on charecters created by: Robert Mark Kamen
Cinematography: James Crabe
Edited by: John G. Avildsen, David Garfield, and Jane Kurson
Music by: Bill Conti

Distributed by: Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 2271 Average listal rating (1473 ratings) 7.7 IMDB Rating 7.9


Directed by: Brian De Palma
Produced by: Art Linson and Ray Hartwick
Written by: David Mamet
Based on the book by: Oscar Fraley and Elliot Ness
Cinematography: Stephen H. Burum
Edited by: Bill Pankow and Jerry Greenberg
Music by: Ennio Morricone

Distributed by: Paramount Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 1068 Average listal rating (584 ratings) 7.4 IMDB Rating 7.7


Directed by: Bernardo Bertolucci
Produced by: John Daly and Derek Gibson
Written by: Mark Peploe, Bernardo Bertolucci, and Enzo Ungari
Based on the novel "From Emperor to Citizen, The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi", by: Pu Yi
Cinematography: Vittorio Storaro
Edited by: Gabrielle Cristiani
Music by: David Byrne, Ryuichi Sakamoto, and Cong Su

Distributed by: Helmdale Pictures and Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 331 Average listal rating (194 ratings) 7 IMDB Rating 7.1


Directed by: Howard Deutch
Produced by: Michael Chinich, Ronald Colby, and John Hughes
Written by: John Hughes
Cinematography: Jan Klesser
Edited by: M. Scott Smith and Bud S. Smith
Music by: Stephen Hague and John Musser

Distributed by: Paramount Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 298 Average listal rating (195 ratings) 6.7 IMDB Rating 7.1
No Way Out (1987)


Directed by: Roger Donaldson
Produced by: Laura Ziskin, Robert Garland, and Mace Neufeld
Written by: Robert Garland
Based on the novel "The Big Clock" by: William Fearing
Cinematography: John Alcott
Edited by: William Hoy and Neil Travis
Music by: Maurice Jarre

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 575 Average listal rating (384 ratings) 6.5 IMDB Rating 6.7


Directed by: John Glen
Produced by: Albert R. Broccoli, Tom Pevsner, and Michael G. Wilson
Written by: Richard Maibaum and Michael G. Wilson
Based on the characters created by: Ian Fleming
Cinematography by: Alec Mills
Edited by: Peter Davies and John Grover
Music by: John Barry
Songs and lyrics by: Pal Waaktaar, John Barry, and Chrissie Hynde

Distributed by: MGM/UA
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 194 Average listal rating (126 ratings) 5.7 IMDB Rating 6.2


Directed by: Charles Shyer
Produced by: Bruce A. Block and Nancy Meyers
Written by: Nancy Meyers and Charles Shyer
Cinematography: William A. Framer
Edited by: Lynzee Kilngman
Music by: Bill Conti

Distributed by: Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 1024 Average listal rating (676 ratings) 7 IMDB Rating 7.4
Wall Street (1987)


Directed by: Oliver Stone
Produced by: Edward Pressman and A. Kitman Ho
Written by: Stanley Weiser and Oliver Stone
Cinematography: Robert Richardson
Edited by: Claire Simpson
Music by: Stewart Copeland

Distributed by: 2Oth Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 678 Average listal rating (416 ratings) 7.2 IMDB Rating 7.2
Manhunter (1986)


Directed by: Michael Mann
Produced by: Richard A. Roth
Screenplay by: Michael Mann
Based on the novel by "Red Dragon" by: Thomas Harris
Cinematography: Dante Spinotti
Edited by: Dov Hoening
Music by: Michel Rubini and The Reds

Distributed by: De Laurentiis Entertainment Group
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 312 Average listal rating (223 ratings) 6.6 IMDB Rating 6.9


Directed by: Clint Eastwood
Produced by: Clint Eastwood and Fritz Manes
Written by: James Carabatsos, Dennis Hackin, and Dennis Stinson
Cinematography: Jack N. Green
Edited by: Joel Cox
Music by: Lennie Neilhaus

Distributed by: Warner Bros.
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 97 Average listal rating (53 ratings) 5.5 IMDB Rating 5.9


Directed by: Garry Marshall
Produced by: Alexandra Rose and Roger M. Rothstein
Written by: Garry Marshall, Rick Podell, and Michael Preminger
Cinematography: John A. Alonzo
Edited by: Glenn Farr
Music by: Patrick Leonard

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 349 Average listal rating (234 ratings) 6.5 IMDB Rating 6.9
La Bamba (1987)


Directed by: Luis Valdez
Produced by: Stuart Benjamin, Taylor Hackford, and Bill Borden
Written by: Luis Valdez
Cinematography: Adam Greenberg
Edited by: Dan Brochu and Sheldon Kahn
Music by: Carlos Santana and Milos Goodman

Distributed by: Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 121 Average listal rating (79 ratings) 5.7 IMDB Rating 6.1
Project X (1987)


Directed by: Jonathan Kaplan
Produced by: C.O. Erickson, William Lasker, and Walter F. Parkes
Written by: Stanley Weiser and William Lasker
Cinematography: Dean Cundey
Edited by: Nicholas Brown and Brent A. Schoenfeld
Music by: James Horner

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 150 Average listal rating (81 ratings) 5.9 IMDB Rating 6.1
Heartburn (1986)


Directed by: Mike Nichols
Produced by: Mike Nichols and Richard Greenhut
Written by: Nora Ephron
Based on the novel by: Nora Ephron
Cinematography: Nestor Almendros
Music by: Carly Simon

Distributed by: Columbia Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 634 Average listal rating (407 ratings) 7.2 IMDB Rating 7.4
The Mission (1986)


Directed by: Roland Joffe
Produced by: Fernando Ghia and David Puttnam
Written by: Robert Bolt
Cinematography: Chris Menges
Edited by: Jim Clark
Music by: Ennio Morricone

Distributed by: Warner Bros.
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 1122 Average listal rating (755 ratings) 7.3 IMDB Rating 7.7


Directed by: Jean Jacques Annaud
Produced by: Jake Eberts, Bernd Eichinger, Bernd Schaefers, and Thomas Schuhly
Written by: Andrew Birkin, Gerard Brach, Howard Franklin, and Alian Goddard
Based on the novel by: Umberto Eco
Cinematography: Tonino Delli Colli
Edited by: Jane Seitz
Music by: James Horner

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox and Nelson Entertainment
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 1711 Average listal rating (1050 ratings) 7 IMDB Rating 7.3


Directed by: Barry Levinson
Produced by: Mark Johnson and Larry Brezner
Written by: Mitch Markowitz
Cinematography: Peter Sova
Edited by: Stu Linder
Music by: Alex North

Distributed by: Touchstone Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 316 Average listal rating (178 ratings) 7.2 IMDB Rating 7.4
Salvador (1986)


Directed by: Oliver Stone
Produced by: John Daly, Derek Gibson, Oliver Stone, Brad H. Aronson, and Gerald Green
Written by: Gerald Green and Oliver Stone
Cinematography: Robert Richardson
Edited by: Claire Simpson
Music by: Georges Delerue

Distributed by: Hemdale Pictures and MGM/UA
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 1373 Average listal rating (889 ratings) 7 IMDB Rating 7.3


Directed by: Joel Coen and Ethan Coen
Produced by: Ethan Coen, James Jacks, and Joel Coen
Written by: Ethan Coen and Joel Coen
Cinematography: Barry Sonnenfeld
Edited by: Michael R. Miller
Music by: Carter Burwell

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 93 Average listal rating (58 ratings) 6.5 IMDB Rating 6.3


Directed by: Bob Rafelson
Produced by: Harold Schneider and Laurence Mark
Written by: Ronald Bass
Cinematography: Conrad L. Hall
Edited by: John Small
Music by: Michael Small

Distributed by: 20th Century Fox
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 124 Average listal rating (59 ratings) 6.3 IMDB Rating 6.7
Ironweed (1988)


Directed by: Hector Babenco
Produced by: Keith Barrish and Marcia Nassatir
Written by: William Kennedy
Based on the novel by: William Kennedy
Cinematography: Lauro Escorel
Edited by: Anne Goursaud
Music by: John Morris

Distributed by: Tri Star Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 118 Average listal rating (65 ratings) 5.8 IMDB Rating 5.7
Gothic (1986) (1987)


Directed by: Ken Russell
Produced by: Al Clark, Penny Corke, Robert Devereux, and Robert Fox
Written by: Stephen Volk
Based on.a story by: Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley
Cinematography: Mike Southon
Edited by: Michael Bradsell
Music by: Thomas Dolby

Distributed by: Vestron Pictures
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
People who added this item 4000 Average listal rating (2633 ratings) 8 IMDB Rating 8.3


Directed by: Stanley Kubrick
Produced by: Jan Harlan, Michael Herr, and Stanley Kubrick
Written by: Stanley Kubrick, Michael Herr, and Gustav Has Ford
Based on the novel, "The Short Timers" by: Gustav Hasford
Cinematography: Douglas Milsome
Edited by: Martin Hill
Music by: Vivian Kubrick

Distributed by: Warner Bros
Agent Kermit D. Fonz's rating:
Load more items (30 more in this list)

Added to

2 votes
Crying Tears: Best Drama Films of the 80's (5 lists)
list by Agent Kermit D. Fonz
Published 4 years, 7 months ago 1 comment



Related lists

20 From 70. My Favorite Films From The Year 1970
20 item list by The Mighty Celestial
5 votes 2 comments
20 From 71: My Favorite Movies Of 1971
20 item list by The Mighty Celestial
7 votes 3 comments
35 From 2: My Favorite Films From 2002
35 item list by The Mighty Celestial
4 votes 2 comments
35 From 3: My Favorite Films From 2003
35 item list by The Mighty Celestial
4 votes 2 comments
35 From 1: My Favorite Films From 2001
35 item list by The Mighty Celestial
3 votes 1 comment
35 From 00: My Favorite Films From The Year 2000
35 item list by The Mighty Celestial
5 votes 1 comment
20 From 77: My Favorite Films Of 1977
20 item list by The Mighty Celestial
4 votes 3 comments
25 From 86: My Favorite Films Of 1986
25 item list by The Mighty Celestial
6 votes 2 comments
25 From 87: My Favorite Films Of 1987
25 item list by The Mighty Celestial
5 votes 3 comments
30 From 99: My Favorite Films From 1999
29 item list by The Mighty Celestial
5 votes 1 comment

View more top voted lists

People who voted for this also voted for


More lists from Agent Kermit D. Fonz