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New Brunswick, Canada

New Brunswick, Canada

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New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick) is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces, and one of the four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. The indigenous inhabitants of the land at the time of European colonization were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, and the Passamaquoddy peoples, aligned politically within the Wabanaki Confederacy, many of whom still reside in the area.

Being relatively close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who eventually colonized most of the Maritimes and some of Maine as the colony of Acadia. The area was caught up in the global conflict between the British and French empires, including the 1722–25 Dummer's War against New England. In 1755 what is now New Brunswick was claimed by the British as part of Nova Scotia, to be partitioned off in 1784 following an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War. Large groups of English, Scottish, and French people had settled and become the majority population by this time. However, as the Catholic French and indigenous peoples had intermarried heavily, they were essentially a Métis.

In 1785, the University of New Brunswick became one of the first universities in North America. The province prospered in the early 1800s due to logging, shipbuilding, and related activities. The population grew rapidly in part due to waves of Irish immigration to Saint John and Miramichi regions, reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867 New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of Canada, along with Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario.

According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves anglophones and a third francophones. One third of the overall population describe themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas, mostly in the capital Fredericton, Greater Moncton, and Greater Saint John.

Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is mostly forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, and less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes.

Tourism accounts for about 9% of the labour force directly or indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, and Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.

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