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Added by PulpRoman on 3 Dec 2013 05:07
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Military Occupation 1798-Present

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Before World War I

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French occupation of Malta 1798–1800


Background:On 19 May 1798, a French fleet sailed from Toulon, escorting an expeditionary force of over 30,000 men under General Napoleon Bonaparte. The force was destined for Egypt. Malta and its neighbouring islands were ruled by the Knights of St. John, Malta refused Bonaparte's demand that his entire convoy be allowed to enter Valletta and take on supplies, insisting that Malta's neutrality meant that only two ships could enter at a time.On receiving this reply, Bonaparte immediately ordered his fleet to bombard Valletta several thousand soldiers landed at seven strategic sites around the island. Approximately 2,000 native Maltese militia resisted for 24 hours, retreating to Valletta once the city of Mdina fell to General Claude-Henri Belgrand de Vaubois. Although Valletta was strong enough to hold out against a lengthy siege, Bonaparte negotiated a surrender with Hompesch, who agreed to turn Malta and all of its resources over to the French in exchange for estates and pensions in France for himself and his knights. Bonaparte then established a French garrison on the islands, leaving 4,000 men under Vaubois while he and the rest of the expeditionary force sailed eastwards for Alexandria on 19 June.

Occupation:On Malta, the French had rapidly dismantled the institutions of the Knights of St. John, including the Roman Catholic Church. Church property was looted and seized to pay for the expedition to Egypt, an act that generated considerable anger among the deeply religious Maltese population.
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Second Occupation of Cuba 1906–1909

Background:After the collapse of President Tomás Estrada Palma's regime, President Theodore Roosevelt ordered an invasion of Cuba and established an occupation that would continue for nearly four years. The goal of the operation was to prevent fighting between the Cubans, to protect North American economic interests, and to hold free elections.

Occupation: Since the rebels had already laid down their arms, the Americans focused on building roads and outposts across the island. A total of 92 kilometers of new roads were constructed during the occupation and the army manned about thirty different posts spread out through both the rural and urban areas, including Guantanamo Bay. A notable event during the occupation was the performance of the Afro-Cuban pitcher José de la Caridad Méndez against the visiting Cincinnati Reds in December of 1908. In a three-game exhibition series, he pitched 25 consecutive scoreless innings, including a five-hit shutout of the entire last game.
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Serbian occupation of Albania, 1912–1913


Background: During the First Balkan War of 1912-13, Serbia and Montenegro – after expelling the Ottoman forces in present-day Albania and Kosovo – committed numerous war crimes against the Albanian population, which were reported by the European, American and Serbian opposition press.

Occupation: Houses and whole villages were reduced to ashes, unarmed and innocent populations massacred en masse, incredible acts of violence, pillage and brutality of every kind — such were the means which were employed and are still being employed by the Serbo-Montenegrin soldiery, with a view to the entire transformation of the ethnic character of regions inhabited exclusively by Albanians. Highest estimated casualties: during the occupation in all the areas under Serbian control was about 120,000 Albanians.
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Banana Wars 1912-34

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United States occupation of Nicaragua, 1912–1933


Occupation: United States military interventions in Nicaragua were intended to prevent the construction of the Nicaraguan Canal by any nation but the United States.The occupation ended as Augusto C. Sandino, a Nicaraguan revolutionary, led guerrilla armies against U.S. troops. The onset of the Great Depression made it costly for the U.S. government to maintain the occupation so a withdrawal was ordered in 1933.
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United States occupation of Veracruz, 1914


Background: The incident came in the midst of poor diplomatic relations between Mexico and the United States, and was related to the ongoing Mexican Revolution.The Tampico Affair was set off when nine American sailors were arrested by the Mexican government for entering off-limit areas in Tampico, Tamaulipas. The armed sailors were arrested when they entered a fuel loading station. The sailors were released, but the U.S. naval commander demanded an apology and a twenty-one gun salute. The apology was provided but not the salute. In the end the response from President Woodrow Wilson ordered the United States Navy to prepare for the occupation of the port of Veracruz.

Occupation: U.S. Army Brigadier General Frederick Funston was placed in control of the administration of the port. The occupation brought the two countries to the brink of war and worsened U.S.-Mexican relations for many years.

Casualties: 22 Americans and 152–172 Mexicans.
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United States occupation of Haiti, 1915–1934


Background: The United States occupation of Haiti began on July 28, 1915, when 330 US Marines landed at Port-au-Prince on the authority of U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to safeguard the interests of U.S. corporations. The Haitian government had been receiving large loans from both American and French banks over the past few decades and was growing increasingly incapable in fulfilling their debt repayment. If an anti-American government prevailed under the leadership of Rosalvo Bobo, there would be no promise of any debt repayment, and the refusal of American investments would have been assured.

Occupation: Within six weeks of the occupation, representatives from the United States controlled Haitian customs houses and administrative institutions such as banks and the national treasury. Through American manipulation, 40% of the national income was used to alleviate the debt repayment to both American and French banks. Despite the large sums due to overseas banks, this economic decision ignored the interests of the majority of the Haitian population and froze the economic growth the country needed. For the next nineteen years, advisers of the United States governed the country, enforced by the United States Marine Corps.
Opposition to the Occupation began immediately after the Marines entered Haiti in 1915. The rebels (called "cacos" by the U.S. Marines) vehemently tried to resist American control of Haiti. In response, the Haitian and American governments began a vigorous campaign to disband the rebel armies.Racial attitudes towards the Haitian people by the American occupation forces were blatant and arguably widespread.The property of natives has been taken for military use. Haitians carrying a gun were for a time shot on sight. Machine guns turned on crowds of unarmed natives.
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United States occupation of the Dominican Republic, 1916–1924


Occupation:United States Marines landed and took control of the country within two months, and imposed a military government under Rear Admiral Harry Shepard Knapp. The marines restored order throughout most of the republic, the country's budget was balanced, its debt was diminished, and economic growth resumed; infrastructure projects produced.

Most Dominicans, however, greatly resented the loss of their sovereignty to foreigners, few of whom spoke Spanish or displayed much real concern for the welfare of the republic. A guerrilla movement, known as the gavilleros, leaders such as General Ramon Natera, enjoyed considerable support from the population in the eastern provinces of El Seibo and San Pedro de Macorís. Having knowledge of the local terrain, they fought against the United States occupation from 1917 to 1921. American naval forces maintained order during a period of chronic and threatened insurrection. In 1921, the gavilleros were crushed due to scorched earth tactics, superior air power, firepower and counterinsurgency methods of the United States military.
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United States occupation of Cuba, 1917–1922

The Sugar Intervention refers to the events in Cuba between 1917 and 1922, when the United States Marine Corps were stationed on the island. The presence of the troops caused anti-American protests. Obviously the U.S was at its imperialist peak during the "BANANA WARS"
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World War I

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Imperial German General Governorate of Belgium 1914-1918

A heavy-handed German military administration sought to regulate every detail of daily life, both on a personal level with travel restraints and collective punishment as on the economical level by harnessing the Belgian industry to the German advantage and by levying repetitive massive indemnities on the Belgian provinces. Before the War Belgium was the sixth largest economy in the world but the Germans destroyed the Belgian economy thoroughly by dismantling industries and transporting the equipment and machinery to Germany that it never regained its pre-war level. More than 100,000 Belgian workers were forcibly deported to Germany to work in the war industry and to Northern France to build roads and other military facilities to the German military's benefit.
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Russian occupation of Eastern Galicia, 1914–15

According to the 1900 Austrian census Eastern Galicia had a population of 4.8 million people, of whom approximately 65% were Ukrainian, 22% Polish and 13% Jewish. Rivalries between the ethnic groups and between political factions within those ethnic groups would shape the occupation policies of the Russian administration. The behavior of the Russian authorities was so heavy-handed that it was denounced as a "European scandal" in the Russian Duma. Jewish newspapers throughout Austria vividly described Russian policy as barbaric and described gruesome details of alleged Russian atrocities against Jews. Zionists in particular identified Jewish and Austrian aims against the common Russian enemy.
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World War 2

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War Horse (2011)
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Occupation by Japan

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Occupation by the Soviet Union

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After World War II

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What is sovereignty or international human rights when one country or people are occupied by another? Placed under perpetual martial law, raped, beaten and killed.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_military_occupations

I'll try to finish a time period every week.

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Posted: 3 years, 11 months ago at Jan 2 13:12
So far, so good! :)
Posted: 3 years, 10 months ago at Feb 16 12:44
Ambitious list my friend.
Posted: 4 months, 3 weeks ago at Jul 22 12:26
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