At the end of the series, the following people would escape the Island and live out life like normal people.
Sawyer - Escaped on Ajira 316.
Kate - Escaped on Ajira 316.
Claire - Escaped on Ajira 316.
Richard - Rendered mortal. Escaped on Ajira 316.
Miles - Escaped on Ajira 316.
Frank - Escaped on Ajira 316.
Aaron - Escaped with the Oceanic 6 at the end of Season 4.
Desmond - Was sent home by Hurley and Ben.
Penelope - Has never actually set foot on the Island.
Eloise - Hadn't visited the Island in recent times, likely remained at the Lamp Post Station in L.A.
The following people survived the series but decided to remain on the Island.
Hurley - The new protector of the Island.
Ben - Hurley's right-hand man.
Walt - Brought back to the Island by Hurley and Ben.
Cindy - After surviving the mortar attack, her and the remaining Others joined Hurley.
Bernard & Rose - Were happy to live the rest of their lives on the Island in the peace and quiet.
Vincent - Likely remained as Bernard & Rose' pet but would occassionally wander off to explore.
Jack - As a result of the Battle for the Island, Jack was mortally wounded by the MIB. The only thing left for him to do was return to the Source and put the Island back to its original state. He died in the bamboo fields where he first landed on the Island at the beginning of the first episode.
The Man In Black/'John Locke' - The Man In Black took John Locke's image and memories to further his goals. With some help from Desmond and Kate, Jack was able to kill the MIB after he was rendered mortal and kicked him off a cliffside.
Jacob - MIB had been waiting a VERY long time to get revenge on Jacob. He managed to manipulate Ben to kill Jacob by posing as John Locke. As he didn't get a chance to name a successor, he was allowed to endure until his ashes were burned one final time.
Charles Widmore - After finally arriving to support Jacob's cause, Widmore was cornered by the MIB and Ben in the Barracks. Ben decided it was time to take vengeance on him for killing Alex.
Jin & Sun - After the bomb went off in the sub, Sun was wedged against the bulkhead and couldn't be freed as it began to sink. Jin elected to stay behind with his wife as he never wished to leave her side again.
Sayid - The MIB managed to trick the survivors to get onto Widmore's submarine with a bomb in tow. When Sawyer pulled the wrong wire, Sayid miraculously grabbed the bomb and ran as far away on the ship as possible to save the others. He died instantly.
Ilana - After rallying the support of those loyal to Jacob, she mishandled some dynamite. BOOM!
The survivors of a plane crash are forced to live with each other on a remote island, a dangerous new world that poses unique threats of its own.
A note from me.
One of my favourite things about Lost were the various missions and divisions that took place throughout the series. There were times when all the main characters would be divided into certain groups (by choice or not) with a particular goal that they had to achieve. The larger missions would usually take place in the season finale for the first 3 seasons, whereas the last 3 seasons were more about the divisions that split the survivors apart.
I created these lists to monitor the everchanging group dynamics and the loyalties that evolved over the 6 seasons of the show.